Model Gamifikasi E-Learning Menggunakan Elemen Video Game yang Berpengaruh Pada Keterikatan Pengguna
Flourensia Sapty Rahayu, Prof. Ir. Lukito Edi Nugroho, M.Sc., Ph.D.; Dr. Ir. Ridi Ferdiana, S.T., M.T., IPM.2023 | Disertasi | S3 Teknik Elektro
Video games have been proven for causing user’s engagement or addiction. The design of video games plays a critical role in causing engagement/addiction. Inspired by this phenomenon, there is a potential to use video game elements that can lead to engagement/addiction to be applied to other domains. On the other hand, the concept of gamification has been widely used in education with the purpose to increase user engagement. However, previous studies showed that not all gamification designs were effective to increase user engagement. The inappropriate selection of gamification elements and the lack of knowledge of the gamification element mechanism for influencing user motivation/engagement may be the cause of ineffectiveness.
The research aims to identify video game elements that have been proven to affect engagement and addiction, as well as to develop a gamification model in e-learning to increase user motivation and engagement by involving the mechanism of individual gamification elements in influencing student motivation and engagement. This research consists of two studies. The first study was conducted in the field of video games which aims to identify game elements that can influence engagement and addiction. From the first study, seven video game elements have proven to have an effect on engagement and addiction, namely reward features, social features, punishment features, presentation features, empowering practices, farming practices, and raiding practices. From those features, five features except punishment and presentation were used in e-learning gamification implementation. The results of gamification implementation will be tested for its effectiveness in influencing motivation and engagement in the second study. Testing is carried out using a developed model.
The model designed is an adaptation and development of the Gamified Learning Theory model. The Gamified Learning Theory model does not explain the mechanism of the gamification elements in influencing student behavior/attitudes. This study seeks to explain the mechanism of gamification elements in influencing user behavior, specifically in the form of user motivation and engagement by adding a mediating variable in the form of perceived value. The implementation of the gamification system in e-learning was carried out for one semester which involved one class from the Information Systems Study Program, Atma Jaya University, Yogyakarta. Model validation was carried out using a mix-method using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The results of the quantitative analysis using SEM-PLS found that there was a significant influence of social features on social values, emotional values, and cognitive values; there is a significant effect of raiding practices on social values; there is a significant influence of social values on intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation; there is a significant effect of empowering practices on cognitive value, and there is a significant effect of intrinsic motivation on behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement. Of the several gamification elements used, social features and raiding practices are proven to influence student motivation and engagement through the values generated from these elements. Social features and raiding practices both have an effect on social value with a significance value of 0.001, and social value has a significant effect on intrinsic motivation (p = 0.01) and extrinsic motivation (p = 0.02). Furthermore, intrinsic motivation is proven to significantly influence behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement with a significance value of 0.001.
To strengthen the results of the quantitative test, a qualitative analysis was carried out which aims to further explore the mechanism of gamification elements in influencing motivation and engagement through perceived value. The results of the analysis prove that each gamification element influences motivation and engagement by providing various perceived values that are felt by students. For example, the leaderboard feature influences perceived value in the form of a sense of competition felt by students, where this competitive feeling in turn influences student motivation and engagement.
In general, this research provides two contributions, namely the theoretical contribution and the empirical contribution. The theoretical contribution made is in the form of producing an e-learning gamification model that can explain the mechanism of gamification elements in influencing user motivation and engagement which was developed from Landers' Gamified Learning Theory (GLT) theory. The empirical contribution generated by this research is in the form of empirical studies related to video game elements that affect engagement as well as empirical studies related to the effectiveness of the proposed gamification model. In relation to novelty, this study offers a new approach in selecting gamification elements by adapting video game elements that cause engagement/addiction to e-learning gamification, where this approach has not been found in previous studies. Another novelty is the discovery of a gamification element mechanism in influencing motivation and engagement, namely through the user's perceived value, which is presented in a model developed from the Gamified Learning Theory model.
Kata Kunci : elemen video game, gamifikasi, e-learning, keterikatan, motivasi, perceived value