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Pengaruh Indeks Massa Tubuh Dan Ketebalan Lemak Subkutan Perut Terhadap Derajat Keriput Wajah

NITA DAMAYANTI S, Prof. Dr. dr. Yohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo, Sp.KK(K).; dr. Dyah Ayu Mira Oktarina, PhD., Sp.KK(K)

2023 | Tesis-Spesialis | DERMATOLOGI DAN VENEREOLOGI

Latar Belakang: Tanda utama proses penuaan kulit adalah adanya keriput yang terbentuk akibat degradasi kolagen. Jaringan lemak subkutan mempunyai efek endokrin, parakrin dan autokrin terhadap fibroblas dermis yang merupakan sel utama dalam pembentukan kolagen. Depot lemak subkutan terbesar tubuh terletak pada perut. Pengukuran antropometri sederhana, indeks massa tubuh (IMT) dan skinfold caliper, dapat digunakan untuk mengukur persentil lemak tubuh. Berdasarkan teori tersebut, makajaringan lemak subkutan dimungkinkan mempunyai pengaruh positif terhadap dermis terutama dalam pembentukan kolagen sehingga mengurangi proses pembentukan keriput. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh IMT dan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut terhadap derajat keriput wajah. Metode: Penelitian dengan desain studi potong lintang pada subjek di Batalyon Infanteri Mekanis 403/Wirasada, Yogyakarta yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Seluruh subjek akan dilakukan pengambilan foto close up wajah, hasil foto akan dinilai derajat keriput wajahnya dengan cara dibandingkan dengan skala fotografi keriput terstandarisasi oleh Zhang. Keriput yang dinilai dibagi menjadi 6 keriput yaitu keriput sudut mata statis dan sudut mata dinamis, dahi statis dan dahi dinamis, glabella serta nasolabial. Setiap subjek kemudian dilakukan pengukuran berat badan dan tinggi badan untuk mendapatkan nilai IMT dan dilakukan pengukuran ketebalan lemak subkutan perut menggunakan skinfold caliper. Pengaruh IMT dan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut terhadap derajat keriput wajah (6 keriput) akan dianalisis dengan uji regresi linear sederhana. Hasil: Terdapat pengaruh peningkatan IMT terhadap penurunan derajat keriput wajah pada area sudut mata statis (R2: 0,496; B: -1,71; p:0,01) dan dinamis (R2: 0,395; B: - 1.27; p:0,01). Tidak didapatkan pengaruh peningkatan IMT terhadap penurunan derajat keriput area dahi statis (R2:0,08; B:-0,27; p: 0,527) dan dinamis (R2:0,042; B:-0,33; p: 0,133), area glabella (R2:0,001; B:-0,03; p: 0,835) dan area nasolabial (R2:0,00; B:-0,05; p: 0,909) . Terdapat pengaruh peningkatan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut terhadap penurunan derajat keriput wajah area sudut mata statis (R2: 0,378; B: -0,101; p: 0,00) dan dinamis (R2: 0, 291; B: -0,090; p:0,00), area dahi statis (R2: 0,163; B: - 0,099; p: 0,002) dan dinamis (R2: 0,16; B: -0,098; p: 0,04), serta area nasolabial (R2:0,220; B: -0,06; p:0,046). Tidak didapatkan pengaruh peningkatan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut terhadap penurunan derajat keriput area glabella (R2:0,01; B: -0,01; p:0,477). Kesimpulan: Peningkatan IMT memiliki pengaruh terhadap penurunan derajat keriput wajah area sudut mata baik secara statis dan dinamis pada subjek dewasa usia 30-40 tahun non obesitas. Tidak terdapat pengaruh peningkatan IMT terhadap penurunan derajat keriput wajah area dahi baik statis dan dinamis, keriput glabella, serta keriput nasolabial. Peningkatan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut memiliki pengaruh terhadap derajat keriput wajah area sudut mata baik statis dan dinamis, area dahi statis dan dinamis, serta area nasolabial pada subjek dewasa usia 30-40 tahun non obesitas. Tidak terdapat pengaruh peningkatan ketebalan lemak subkutan perut terhadap penurunan derajat keriput wajah area glabella.

Background: The main sign of the skin aging process is the presence of wrinkles that are formed due to collagen degradation. Subcutaneous fat tissue has endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects on dermal fibroblasts, the main cells that form collagen. The largest subcutaneous fat depot is located in the abdomen. Simple anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI) and skinfold caliper, can be used to measure body fat percentiles. Based on above, subcutaneous fat tissue is thought to have a positive influence on the dermis in collagen production, thereby reducing the process of wrinkle formation. Objective: This study aims to determine the influence of BMI and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness on the degree of facial wrinkles. Methods: Research with a cross-sectional study design was conducted on subjects in the 403/Wirasada Infantry Battalion, Yogyakarta, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All subjects were assessed for the degree of facial wrinkles using Zhang's standardized wrinkle photographic scales. Wrinkles assessed were static and dynamic eye-corner wrinkles, static and dynamic forehead wrinkles, glabellar wrinkles, and nasolabial wrinkles. Each subject was measured for BMI and thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat using a skinfold caliper. The influence of BMI and thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat on the degree of facial wrinkles was analyzed using a simple linear regression test. Results: This study showed that there was a significant influence of increased BMI on reducing the degree of facial wrinkles in the eye-corner area, both static (R2: 0.496; B: -1.71; p: 0.01) and dynamic (R2: 0.395; B: -1,27; p: 0,01). There was no significant influence of increased BMI on reducing the degree of static (R2:0,08; B:-0,27; p: 0,527) and dynamic (R2:0,042; B:-0,33; p: 0,133) forehead wrinkles, glabellar wrinkles (R2:0,001; B:-0,03; p: 0,835), and nasolabial wrinkles (R2:0,00; B:-0,05; p: 0,909). There was also a significant influence of increased thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat on decreasing the degree of facial wrinkles in the eye- corner area, both static (R2: 0.378; B: -0.101; p: 0.00) and dynamic (R2: 0.291; B: -0.090; p: 0.00), static (R2: 0.163; B: -0.099; p: 0.002) and dynamic (R2: 0.16; B: -0.098; p: 0.04) forehead wrinkles, as well as nasolabial wrinkles (R2: 0.220; B: -0.06; p: 0.046). There was no significant influence of increased thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat on decreasing the degree of glabellar wrinkles (R2:0,01; B: -0,01; p:0,477). Conclusion: Increased BMI has a significant influence on reducing the degree of facial wrinkles in the eye-corner of both static and dynamic wrinkles in non-obese adult subjects aged 30-40 years. There was no significant effect of increased BMI on reducing the degree of facial wrinkles in the forehead area of both static and dynamic wrinkles, glabellar wrinkles, and nasolabial wrinkles. Increased thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat has a significant influence on the degree of facial wrinkles in both static and dynamic eye-corner areas, static and dynamic forehead wrinkles, and nasolabial wrinkles in non-obese adult subjects aged 30-40 years. There was no significant effect of increased thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat on decreasing the degree of facial wrinkles in the glabellar area.

Kata Kunci : Indeks massa tubuh, ketebalan lemak subkutan perut, derajat keriput wajah, penuaan kulit,body mass index, thickness of subcutaneous abdominal fat, degree of facial wrinkles, skin aging.

  1. SPESIALIS-2023-470457-abstract.pdf  
  2. SPESIALIS-2023-470457-bibliography.pdf  
  3. SPESIALIS-2023-470457-tableofcontent.pdf  
  4. SPESIALIS-2023-470457-title.pdf