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Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Esensial Cengkeh dan Kulit Kayu Manis Terhadap Bakteri Penghasil Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase

ELGIO VENANDA G, drh. Dyah Ayu Widiasih, Ph.D.; Dr. Endah Retnaningrum, M.Eng.

2021 | Tesis | MAGISTER SAINS VETERINER

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) merupakan enzim yang mampu menyebabkan resistensi terhadap berbagai antibiotik golongan beta-lactam. Bakteri penghasil ESBL tersebar luas mulai dari peternakan, pemotongan hewan hingga produk pangan yang berasal dari hewan. Kontaminasi bakteri penghasil ESBL pada daging ayam bisa berdampak pada kesehatan manusia akibat kemampuan resistensi terhadap antibiotika yang dimiliki oleh bakteri tersebut. Cengkeh dan kayu manis dilaporkan memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus dan S. typhimurium, namun belum diketahui memiliki sifat antibakteri terhadap bakteri penghasil ESBL. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri minyak esesnsial cengkeh dan kayu manis terhadap isolat bakteri penghasil ESBL. Uji aktivitas antibakteri minyak esensial cengkeh dan kayu manis terhadap isolat E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603, dan E. coli penghasil ESBL asal daging ayam dilakukan dengan metode difusi cakram. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) minyak esensial cengkeh dan kayu manis ditentukan dengan metode broth microdillution. Hasil uji kedua minyak esensial tersebut menunjukkan adanya zona hambat di sekitar cakram. Nilai MIC terhadap semua isolat bakteri uji untuk minyak cengkeh adalah 0,078% (v/v), dan minyak kayu manis berkisar antara 0,039% (v/v) sampai 0,156% (v/v). Nilai MBC untuk minyak cengkeh dan kayu manis berkisar antara 0,078% (v/v) sampai 0,156% (v/v). Lebih lanjut, perubahan morfologi pada tiap sel bakteri uji dan kerusakan membran sel terlihat dengan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Minyak esensial cengkeh dan kayu manis terbukti menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri yang tinggi terhadap bakteri penghasil ESBL, dengan dosis yang dianjurkan yaitu minyak essensial cengkeh 0,078% dan kayu manis 0,039% (v/v).

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is an enzyme capable of causing resistance to various beta-lactam antibiotics. ESBL-producing bacteria are widely distributed from farms, to slaughterhouses, until food products originating from animal. Contamination of ESBL-producing-bacteria in chicken meat has an impact on human health because of the antibiotics resistance capability possessed by these bacteria. Cloves and cinnamon were reported to have antibacterial activity against E. coli O157: H7, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and S. typhimurium, but it is not known to have antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing-bacteria. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against ESBL-producing-bacterial isolates. The antibacterial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils was tested against E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and E. coli ESBL from chicken meat by disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of clove and cinnamon essential oil was determined by the broth microdilution method. Both essential oils exhibited inhibitory effects towards all the test organisms, indicated by the presence of inhibition zones around the disc. The MIC values for clove oil was 0.078% (v/v) against all tested bacteria while MICs for cinnamon oil ranged from 0.039% (v/v) to 0.156% (v/v). The MBC values for clove and cinnamon oil ranged from 0.078% (v/v) to 0.156% (v/v). Furthermore, morphological changes in each test bacteria and damage to the cell membrane were seen by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Clove and cinnamon essential oils have been shown high antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing-bacteria, with the recommended dosages of clove essential oil 0.078% and cinnamon 0.039% (v/v).

Kata Kunci : Antibakteri, ESBL, cengkeh, kayu manis, daging ayam

  1. S2-2021-448613-abstract.pdf  
  2. S2-2021-448613-bibliography.pdf  
  3. S2-2021-448613-tableofcontent.pdf  
  4. S2-2021-448613-title.pdf